Assessment and Rewiew. A&R of intented nationally determined contributions (see also INDCs). A&R processes are essential in order to make sure that internationally agreed objectives and
principles do not slip away in a system of nationally determined offers. The overall purpose of A&R is thereby to ensure that INDCs meet the objectives and principles of the UNFCCC. A&R can focus on individual contributions or on the contributions in aggregate (collective A&R). It can occur before a contribution is formalized in an agreement (see Ex-ante A&R), or after an agreement has been adopted focusing on progress or compliance (Ex-post A&R).


For International assessment and review process (IAR) including A&R of greenhouse gas inventories, biennial reports and national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention, visit: UNFCCC.int