REDD+

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in developing countries, including conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. REDD (see also REDD) received substantial attention from the international community at COP13 in 2007, where REDD+ was referenced to in the Bali Action Plan. At COP16 in 2010, REDD became REDD+. Subsequent decisions within the UNFCCC have repeatedly stressed the importance of forests in efforts to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change. At COP19 in 2012 a whole set of decisions providing guidance on REDD+ were made including technical assessment of reference (emission) levels, national forest monitoring systems, safeguard information systems, addressingthe drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, and procedures for measuring, reporting and verifying (MRV) forest-related emissions and removals. How MRV results of implementing REDD+ will be financed is still under discussion. But recent decisions have recognized that finance can come from a variety of sources (public, private, bilateral and multilateral), including the Green Climate Fund (see GFC).